Albert Einstein is considered by many to be the greatest scientist of the 20th century, and his contributions to science equal in importance and scope to those of Isaac Newton.

- Nationality
- Subject
- Fields
- Distinctions
- Posts
- Publications
- Theories
- Equations
- Experiments/Discoveries

German - Swiss - American

Physics, Theoretical

Relativity, nuclear energy, quantum mechanics, mass-energy equivalence, philosophy of science, peace

Nobel Prize, 1921, for his work on the Photoelectric Effect. Many are of the opinion that the Nobel Committee were forced to award the Nobel to Einstein because of the confirmation of his General Relativity Theory in 1919, but they were unconvinced about the theory themselves, so awarded the prize for the secondary work.

Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Theoretical Physics, Berlin.

Einstein published over 300 scientific papers in his long, illustrious career. In the year he was awarded his PhD by the University of Zurich, with his dissertation on "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions", he went on to publish a further four papers which revolutionised physics and scientific thought and philosophy. This was his "annus mirabilis" (Wunderjahr - Miracle Year):

1. *On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light*, a paper explaining the mysterious Photoelectric Effect, and in which Einstein proposes the idea of energy quanta.

2. *Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teichen"* (On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat). This paper explained the mysterious Brownian Motion, in which small pollen grains were observed to move erratically in still water. It provided empirical evidence for the existence of atoms, proposed by Boltzman, and still considered as dubious by the physics community.

3. *Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper* (On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies). this paper introduced his Special Theory of Relativity, in which he reconciles Maxwell's electromagnetism equations with the mechanics of bodies at speeds approaching the speed of light.

4. *Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?* (Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon its Energy content?). In this paper Einstein unleashed upon the unsuspecting world his famous formula:

Special Theory of Relativity, 1905

General Relativity of Relativity, 1915

$E = mc^2$

$E = {mc^2}/{√{1-{v^2}/{c^2}}}$

Light-lensing

Einstein's work on relativity was published in two parts: Special Relativity in 1905, and General Relativity in 1915.

He published 4 ground-breaking papers in one year, 1905, at the age of just 26. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for one of these papers: on the photoelectric effect.

(Biographies of famous scientists no. 1)

- Albert Einstein
- Isaac Newton
- Arthur Eddington
- Niels Bohr
- Edwin Hubble
- Werner Heisenberg
- Karl Schwarzschild
- Edward Stone
- Niels Bohr
- Albert Einstein
- Lisa Randall
- Isaac Newton
- Pierre-Simon Laplace
- Galileo Galilei
- Richard Feynman
- Arthur Eddington
- Jagadish Bose
- Werner Heisenberg
- Ernest Rutherford
- Karl Schwarzschild
- Paul Dirac
- Edwin Hubble
- Enrico Fermi

Read Biographies from:

The most recent article is:

View this item in the topic:

and many more articles in the subject:

Mathematics is the most important tool of science. The quest to understand the world and the universe using mathematics is as old as civilisation, and has led to the science and technology of today. Learn about the techniques and history of mathematics on ScienceLibrary.info.

Question: The speed of a satellite in a circular orbit, radius 10,000 km, around the Earth, is $6.3 ⋅ 10^3 m s^{-1}$. What is the acceleration of freefall at any point in this orbit, in $m s^{-2}$?

Go to the article about: Circular Motion

Website © renewable-media.com | Designed by: Andrew Bone