Rudolf Virchow was a German physician, pathologist and prehistorian, as well as a social and political writer and reformer.
Pathology, medicine, anthropology, prehistory
Known as 'The Father of Pathology'
Copley Medal, 1892
Various academic posts, including first Chair of Pathological Anatomy and Physiology for the Charité Institute for Pathology, post 1854.
Over 2,000 scientific papers and works
Die medicinische Reform, newspaper during the period around the 1848 Revolution, in which he expounds his social and political ideas.
Cellular Pathology, 1858, which established modern pathology.
Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, now Virchows Archiv
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Journal of Ethnology, published by two societies founded by Virchow, the German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory.
Omnis cellula e cellula : all cells come from cells, the third dictum of cell theory
Cellular pathology, including the origin of cancer
Virchow opposed Darwin's theory of Evolution
He thought Neanderthal was not a separate species of man
Virchow's node, Virchow–Robin spaces, Virchow–Seckel syndrome, and Virchow's triad.
Virchow described and named many diseases and conditions, including leukemia, embolism, thrombosis, and invented many scientific terms, such as chromatin, agenesis, amyloid degeneration and spina bifida.
In a long an illustrious career, Virchow revolutionised medicine, in particular our understanding of disease.
Medical students see his name frequently, as it is used in the names of many diseases and conditions, which Virchow discovered.
He is also known as the third of the trio (with Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann) who formulated the three doctrines of Cell Theory.
Virchow's genius did not always produce the right results: he opposed Darwin's theory of Evolution, and was quite vitriolic in criticising its proponents. He also thought Neanderthal was not a separate species of man.
(Biographies of famous scientists no. 48)
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1873 - 1916
Karl Schwarzschild was a German astronomer and physicist, and a pioneer of the field of astrophysics. He solved Einstein's field equations while serving as an artillery office on the Eastern Front, during World War One.
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