Venus has an orbit, like Mercury, inside Earth's orbit. It is often called Earth's twin, but conditions on its surface are far from hospitable. It spins in the opposite direction to Earth and the other planets, with a day longer than its year!
Venus has a thick cloud layer, making observations of the surface impossible. Orbiters have managed to collate a complete map of the surface using radar, revealing a rugged, mountainous surface, pockmarked with craters and rifts.
There have been 41 missions to Venus.
Venera 1 and 2 both failed, but Venera 3 (1966) managed to crash-land a probe on the surface of Venus, the first spacecraft to reach another planet's surface.
Venera 4, 1967, released a descent capsule, which entered the atmosphere to make measurements of temperature, pressure and density. It analysed the chemical composition of the atmosphere, revealing the high concentration of carbon dioxide (95%).
Venera 5 and Venera 6 had similar missions, and as for Venera 4 contact was lost with their descent capsules before reaching the surface, due to battery drain and being crushed by the pressure while still 18km above the surface.
Venera 7 (1970) did however manage to reach the surface, and continued to transmit data about temperatures for 23 minutes.
Venera 8 (1972) also managed to land a probe, lasting long enough to report that the clouds formed a high layer, 35 km above the surface, and to analyse the crust's chemical composition with a gamma ray spectrometer.
1962, USA. The first successful mission to Venus, and to any planet. Mariner discovered that the rotation of the planet is opposite to the other planets, and the surface temperature is 425 °C.
Content © Renewable-Media.com. All rights reserved. Created : October 25, 2015 Last updated :January 17, 2016
The most recent article is:
View this item in the topic:
and many more articles in the subject:
Environmental Science is the most important of all sciences. As the world enters a phase of climate change, unprecedented biodiversity loss, pollution and human population growth, the management of our environment is vital for our futures. Learn about Environmental Science on ScienceLibrary.info.
1901 - 1976
Werner Heisenberg was a German physicist, and a key member of the 'Copenhagen Interpretation', which proposed an observer-creation understanding of quantum phenomena, based on Niels Bohr's theories and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
"Is that why you wear no socks?" Sean asked Professor Einstein.
"You can vear socks but you can't, strictly speaking, vear no socks."
Website © renewable-media.com | Designed by: Andrew Bone