Science Library - free educational site

The Expanding Universe

The Firmament and the Wheels of Ptolemy

Universe 2.0: putting the Earth in its place

Copernicus worked out the new solar system, putting the Earth in orbit around the Sun.

Galileo demonstrated that at least the moons of Jupiter did not orbit the Earth.

Kepler explained the mathematics of orbits.

Newton finalised the argument with some high-falooting mathemtics, and proved it all by helping Halley predict the orbit of his orbit.

Cosmology is Born

Laplace gives us Celestial Mechanics. The Hershel family observe and measure, expanding our solar system by an eighth planet.

The Ether is put to Rest

Michelson-Morley try to prove the ether exists, and fail with spectacular success.

Cosmo Fudge

Einstein redefines space and time, and energy to boot, but believes wht everyone assuming - that the universe is a single galaxy, and static. So he fudged his equation with the cosmological constant. Silly man - "Ja ja, das war mein grösster boo-boo!" ('Yes, yes, that was my biggest mistake!).

Hubble Shifts the Scale

Then Edwin Hubble used an enormous telescope on Mt. Wilson, California, to measure the Red Shift of distant galaxies, and bingo, the universe suddenly got a whole lot bigger.

The Big Bang is Born

Reversing the vectors brings everything to a single point with a tight fit. Was this the beginning of the universe?

Expansion and Inflation

We know it is expanding, but will the universe expand forever, or will it be pulled back by gravity, reverse direction, and recede into a big crunch?

Dark Matter to balance the books

The engima: the universe should be slowing down, not speeding up. So what is going on?

Content © Andrew Bone. All rights reserved. Created : March 26, 2016 Last updated :August 22, 2017

Latest Item on Science Library:

The most recent article is:

Air Resistance and Terminal Velocity

View this item in the topic:


and many more articles in the subject:

Subject of the Week


'Universe' on covers astronomy, cosmology, and space exploration. Learn Science with


Great Scientists

Joseph Banks

1743 - 1820

To Australians at least, Sir Joseph Banks is an outstanding figure in botanical history, revealing to the world the rich diversity of antipodean flora and fauna.

Joseph Banks, 1743 - 1820, English botanist

Quote of the day...

The difficulty lies not so much in developing new ideas as in escaping from old ones.

A Term a Day:

Inertial Frame

[ Universe : The New Reality]

Inertial frame of reference: a system on which no forces are acting.

Read more

ZumGuy Internet Promotions