Copernicus worked out the new solar system, putting the Earth in orbit around the Sun.

Galileo demonstrated that at least the moons of Jupiter did not orbit the Earth.

Kepler explained the mathematics of orbits.

Newton finalised the argument with some high-falooting mathemtics, and proved it all by helping Halley predict the orbit of his orbit.

Laplace gives us Celestial Mechanics. The Hershel family observe and measure, expanding our solar system by an eighth planet.

Michelson-Morley try to prove the ether exists, and fail with spectacular success.

Einstein redefines space and time, and energy to boot, but believes wht everyone assuming - that the universe is a single galaxy, and static. So he fudged his equation with the cosmological constant. Silly man - "Ja ja, das war mein grösster boo-boo!" ('Yes, yes, that was my biggest mistake!).

Then Edwin Hubble used an enormous telescope on Mt. Wilson, California, to measure the Red Shift of distant galaxies, and bingo, the universe suddenly got a whole lot bigger.

Reversing the vectors brings everything to a single point with a tight fit. Was this the beginning of the universe?

We know it is expanding, but will the universe expand forever, or will it be pulled back by gravity, reverse direction, and recede into a big crunch?

The engima: the universe should be slowing down, not speeding up. So what is going on?

Content © Andrew Bone. All rights reserved. Created : March 26, 2016 Last updated :August 22, 2017

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1707 - 1778

Carl Linnaeus was a prolific writer, publishing books, lavishly illustrated, throughout his life. Through his travels, studies and collections, he developed a system of taxonomic nomenclature which is the basis of the modern system.

- No matches

"What's wrong with that?!" shrugged Pau. "Executioners work in Diagony Alley, civil servants in Memo Circle, legislators in Backhand Avenue, lawyers in Waffle Park, doctors in Or Topsy Deadend, marriage agents in Pickadilly Circus - why shouldn't bakers mix in Pudding Lane?"

A Term a Day:

A fermion is a particle with half-integer spin, and which obeys the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

A fermion is a particle with half-integer spin, and which obeys the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

The term was coined by Paul Dirac, in honour of the Italian nuclear physicist, Enrico Fermi. Fermions are characterised by the Fermi-Dirac statistics, and include quarks and leptons, or any composite comprising odd numbers of quarks and leptons. Examples are baryons, many atoms and nuclei, but also include elementary particles, such as electrons.

Fermions possess conserved baryon or lepton quantum numbers.

Bosons are particles with full-integer spin, and obey Bose-Einstein statistics.