In HTML5, the default character encoding is UTF-8, replacing the HTML 4.01 ISO-8859-1 standard, and Window's ANSI (ISO-8859-1 with 32 extra characters). All standards prior to Unicode were limited and contained a cultural/linguistic bias, not suitable to multilingual environments.
The Unicode Standard is default for HTML5, and covers all the characters, punctuations and symbols in the world.
Conclusion: use HTML5 and Unicode!
accept-charset does not need to be declared specifically.
UTF-8 is a standard which covers all characters, punctuation marks and symbols, of all languages. Each character is 1-4 bytes long. It is backwards compatible with previous standards, such as ASCII (the ye olde 256 character code from the card-punching age).
UTF-16 is a 'Transformation Format'. This is a variable-length character encoding, and is used in operating systems (Windows, .NET, Java).
Compatibility: HTML4 supports UTF-8 only. HTML5 supports both UTF-8 and UTF-16.
Sometimes it is desired to override the HTML default layout rules. For example, a double space in the code is interpreted as a single space, and a line break as an 'Enter' key stroke in the code is ignored.
To compel HTML to interpret all strokes, the
<pre> tag is used:
The code in the example above is entered in the text editor with carriage spaces and enter returns for line breaks. Without the
<pre> tags, the above code results in:
<pre>, the above code results in:
n = 0 1 n = 1 1 1 n = 2 1 2 1 n = 3 1 3 3 1 n = 4 1 4 6 4 1 n = 5 1 5 10 10 5 1
To align text vertically, use the CSS3 property
vertical-align. The old HTML property
valign is not supported by HTML5. However, it is still less simple to use than horizontal alignment. The best results can be obtained by adding
display:table-cell; to the elements CSS properties.
default, aligns to the baseline of parent element
displacement vertically by specified positive or negative amount
displacement vertically by specified positive or negative percentage of height of parent element
displaces text downwards as if it were a subscript (half line-height)
displaces text upwards as if it were a superscript (half line-height)
aligns to the top of the parent element
aligns to the middle of the parent element
default aligns to the bottom of the parent element
aligns to the top of a text block
aligns to the bottom of a text block
specifies start of alignment
whatever the parent element uses as alignment
Inline vertical alignment can also be achieved by using
To align an element within a fixed size parent element (like a box), just use
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