Science Library - free educational site

German Grammar

German, like all languages, has rules and exceptions. So long as you don't take exception to the rules, you should be alright!

dass, daß oder das?????

Although still common, and definitely stylish and special, the alte Rechtschreibung character ß [HTML: (&)szlig;] has been deemed unsuitable for dass. Pity, but, mind you, a lot faster to type..

Ich weiß, dass er Deutsch gut sprechen kann.

Much confusion exists in the use of the single or double s, as in das or dass?

das is an article (like English the) or a pronoun (like English who, which and that) for a independent relative clause (non-essential information for understanding the sentence). das can be substituted by welches, dieses or jenes

dass is a conjunction, and starts an object clause.

Before (or while) you panic, some examples:

Ich trinke das Wasser, das ich in meiner Flasche habe.

Ich weiß, dass er Deutsch gut sprechen kann.

Quick check: Ich trinke das Wasser, welches ich in meiner Flasche habe. That works. Solution: das.

Ich weiß, welches er Deutsch gut sprechen kann. That does not work. Solution: dass. Was weiß ich? Ich weiß, dass .....

Das habe ich schon gewußt.

das is used for the neutral demonstrative pronoun. In this case, das can be replaced by diesjenes.

Dass ich schon gewußt habe, freut dich sehr.

dass ich schon gewußt habe is the subject of the main phrase: 'Etwas freut dich sehr.' Wer oder was freut dich?

Compare:

Ein Mädchen, das sehr jung war, hat seiner Lehrerin einen Apfel geschenkt.

Das Geschenk, dass das junge Mädchen seiner Lehrerin geschenkt hat, war ein Apfel.

Bindestrich.

German nouns which have multiple parts use hyphens. e.g. Das New-York-Erlebnis war sehr schön.

Imperative

The imperative in German exists for all three second person forms: du, Sie, ihr

  • Sie form: invert the verb and pronoun
  • Lesen Sie mehr um Deutsch gut zu lernen!

    Exception: Seien sie ruhig bitte!

  • Du form: like the second person but without the ending and without the pronoun:
  • Lies mehr um Deutsch gut zu lernen! Iss mehr Frucht!

    Exception: Sei ruhig!

    Verbs that end in d, t, ig, m, n: retain the e: Antworte mir bitte! Öffne das Fenster!

    Irregular verbs: without the umlaut. Gebt mir eure Hausaufgaben! Seid vorsichtig!

    Content © Andrew Bone. All rights reserved. Created : October 1, 2015 Last updated :June 7, 2016

Latest Item on Science Library:

The most recent article is:

Trigonometry

View this item in the topic:

Vectors and Trigonometry

and many more articles in the subject:

Subject of the Week

Physics

Physics is the science of the very small and the very large. Learn about Isaac Newton, who gave us the laws of motion and optics, and Albert Einstein, who explained the relativity of all things, as well as catch up on all the latest news about Physics, on ScienceLibrary.info.

Gravity lens

Great Scientists

Linus Pauling

1901 - 1994

Linus Pauling is the only person in history to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes (Chemistry 1954, Peace 1962). He is considered one of the greatest scientists and humanitarians ever, and his fields of activity were widespread.

Linus Pauling
ZumGuy Network Promotions

Quote of the day...

The essence of mathematics is not to make simple things complicated, but to make complicated things simple.

ZumGuy Internet Promotions

IT information forum by Sean Bone