Nicolaus (II) Bernoulli was the second mathematician called Nicolaus in the Bernoulli dynasty, which dominated the world of mathematics from their home in Basel, Switzlerland.

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Swiss

Mathematics

Differential equations, functions, probability, fluid dynamics

Private tutor, Venice, 1716-7

Chair of Mathematics, University of Bologna, 1719 -

Professor of Law, Berner Oberen Schule, 1723 -

Invited by Peter the Great to St. Petersberg Academy, where he died of fever within 8 months, succeeded by Leonard Euler, who also died there prematurely.

He proposed the reciprocal orthogonal trajectories problem in 1720 as a challenge to the Newtonians.

He entered the Unviversity of Basel at only 13 years old, to study mathematics and law.

Speaking several languages already in his teens, he assisted his father with correspondence, and was engaged in his father's disputes with Newton's supporters, regarding the authorship of calculus, and Brook Taylor, the English mathematician. He proposed the reciprocal orthogonal trajectories problem in 1720 as a challenge to the Newtonians.

(Biographies of famous scientists no. 70)

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1749 - 1827

Pierre-Simon de Laplace was a French aristocrat who narrowly escaped the guillotine during the French Revolution. He was the mathematics tutor then friend of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Ă‰cole Militaire in Paris, and briefly became his Minister of the Interior in 1800.

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