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Angles

Angle Rules

Right-angle rule

Angle Rules
Straight line angles sum to 180°.

The angles that sub-divide a right angle sum to 90°.

A circle consists of 4 right angles, or 360°. On a graph of a circle, the radial angle enclosed by a right angle is called a quadrant, where quadrant 1 is from 0° to 90°.

Mathematics question
Straight lines form pairs of equal and opposite angles
Mathematics question
An intersecting straight line through parallel lines will form pairs of equal angles

Straight-angle rule

A straight angle is the angle of a straight line, which is 180°. The angles that sub-divide a straight line sum to 180°.

When two straight lines intersect, they form two pairs of angles. The pairs are opposite in position and equal in magnitude.

Pythagoras' Theorem

A famous theorem for calculating the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle was invented 2500 years ago by a Greek called Pythagoras. His theorem states:

a2 + b2 = c2, where a and b are the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle with hypotenuse c.

Pythagoras

The Pythagoras or Pythagorean Theorem was devised by the Ancient Greek mathematician, Pythagoras (570 - 495 BCE).

For such a famous man, we actually know relatively little about him for sure. However, his legacy as a mathematician and philosopher has had a huge impact on Western culture in many fields. It is a pity most people today just know him for his eponymous triangle theorem, important as it is.

Pythagoras
Pythagoras in Raphael's School of Athens

Trigonometry

Angles of right-angled triangles may be calculated using trigonometric functions. The definitions of the three basic trig functions are:

Sine

Basic trig identities

The sine of an angle is equal to the length of the opposite side over the hypotenuse: $sinB = b/c$

If two sides of a triangle are known, it is possible to calculate the angle by in the inverse sine function: $B = sin^{-1}({b/c})$.

Cosine

The cosine of an angle is equal to the length of the adjacent side over the hypotenuse: $cosB = a/c$

If two sides of a triangle are known, it is possible to calculate the angle by in the inverse cosine function: $B = cos^{-1}({a/c})$.

Tangent

The tangent of an angle is equal to the length of the opposite side over the adjacent side: $tanB = b/a$

If two sides of a triangle are known, it is possible to calculate the angle by in the inverse tangent function: $B = tan^{-1}({b/a})$.

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Charles Goodyear

1800 - 1860

Charles Goodyear is a model of the determined inventor, who struggled to find the secret to a better rubber, despite years of financial hardship and frustration.

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"I knew Descartes," said Isaac Barrow. "René', I used to say. 'Have you got des cartes?' Then after a few tankards, he would say: 'Don't try to cheat me, Wheelie-boy. Cogito ergo sum...' - that's classical pidgin for 'I can think so I can add up as well as the next man'."

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